THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 261 sentences are too long break them up; (e) nothing should appear in the translation for which a sufficient reason cannot be given; (/) avoid jingles which jar on the ear."* Composition in Latin which in other schools followed directly on the learning of grammar was postponed till it could have an ample foundation in this careful translation of the Latin authors. Even then, greater importance was attached to the immediate reproduction in Latin of the substance of what had been read than to the rendering of set passages. With the Port Royal schools and the view of life for which they stood, a new spirit entered into French education. Even the university of Paris, which had deliberately shut out modern thought by interdicting innovations like the Cartesian philosophy, began to resile from its obscurantism as the Seventeenth Century drew to a close. The French language and literature got some recognition, and better methods of teaching, suggested like those of Port Royal by Descartes* principles, began to displace the formal exercises which had lingered on in the colleges from the Middle Ages. The Treatise on Studies (1726-1728) summing up the experience of Charles Rollin (1661-1741), who, as professor of history in the college of France and three times rector of the university, had had a considerable share in this movement of reform, bears unmistakable witness to the influence of Jansenism. 4. COURTLY EDUCATION In the Sixteenth Century, practically all the better classes sent their children to the grammar schools or to schools of kindred type. But the great social changes following on the Reformation and the wars of religion produced an increasing separation of the nobles and landed gentry from the clergy and the middle classes for whom these schools mainly served. In consequence of this, there arose a demand all over Western Europe for a different kind of education to prepare young aristocrats for the duties of Court and State, The models for this education were ready to hand in the methods of courtly education which had been developed with striking success in Italy in the golden days of the Renaissance, The example of schools like those of Vittorino and * Barnard, p. 134.